07 May 2020

pandas.DataFrame.to_csv does not support writing to binary file objects 1. This causes confusion 2345 and makes the function difficult to work with. In this article I will first illustrate the problem with an example. Then, I will present a monkey patch for pandas.DataFrame.to_csv which mitigates the known pitfall.

Let us write two files containing the names of three beautiful Swiss cities (in descending order).

data = ["Bern", "Genève", "Zürich"]


The files we will write are cities-utf-8.csv which is in utf-8 encoding an cities-latin.csv in ISO/IEC 8859-1 (latin).

DataFrame(data).to_csv("cities-utf-8.csv", index=False)
DataFrame(data).to_csv("cities-latin.csv", encoding="latin", index=False)


Everything works as expected and the files are written in utf-8 and latin encoding respectively.

$file cities-*.csv cities-latin.csv: ISO-8859 text cities-utf-8.csv: UTF-8 Unicode text$ hexdump -C cities-latin.csv
00000000  30 0a 42 65 72 6e 0a 47  65 6e e8 76 65 0a 5a fc  |0.Bern.Gen.ve.Z.|
00000010  72 69 63 68 0a                                    |rich.|
00000015
$hexdump -C cities-utf-8.csv 00000000 30 0a 42 65 72 6e 0a 47 65 6e c3 a8 76 65 0a 5a |0.Bern.Gen..ve.Z| 00000010 c3 bc 72 69 63 68 0a |..rich.| 00000017  So far so good. But what if we want to write those to a file object instead? with open("cities-utf-8.csv", mode="w") as fd: DataFrame(data).to_csv(fd, index=False) with open("cities-latin.csv", mode="w") as fd: DataFrame(data).to_csv(fd, encoding="latin", index=False)  Both files look suddenly very similar: $ file cities-*.csv
cities-latin.csv: UTF-8 Unicode text
cities-utf-8.csv: UTF-8 Unicode text
$hexdump -C cities-latin.csv 00000000 30 0a 42 65 72 6e 0a 47 65 6e c3 a8 76 65 0a 5a |0.Bern.Gen..ve.Z| 00000010 c3 bc 72 69 63 68 0a |..rich.| 00000017$ hexdump -C cities-utf-8.csv
00000000  30 0a 42 65 72 6e 0a 47  65 6e c3 a8 76 65 0a 5a  |0.Bern.Gen..ve.Z|
00000010  c3 bc 72 69 63 68 0a                              |..rich.|
00000017


In fact, they are exactly the same.

$sha256sum cities-*.csv ab401dff37c00f4d22e4ab2aa70fa2d67d89bd042787cb9e643bea7eeb5ee577 cities-latin.csv ab401dff37c00f4d22e4ab2aa70fa2d67d89bd042787cb9e643bea7eeb5ee577 cities-utf-8.csv  Well, obviously. In order to be able to write a different encoding than utf-8 we have to open the files in binary mode: with open("cities-utf-8.csv", mode="wb") as fd: DataFrame(data).to_csv(fd, index=False) with open("cities-latin.csv", mode="wb") as fd: DataFrame(data).to_csv(fd, encoding="latin", index=False)  Which gives us a lovely: TypeError: a bytes-like object is required, not 'str'. Turns out that pandas.DataFrame.to_csv can not write to a binary file object. As a work around people have suggest just wrapping the file object in a io.TextIOWrapper: with open("cities-utf-8.csv", mode="wb") as fd: DataFrame(data).to_csv(TextIOWrapper(fd), index=False) with open("cities-latin.csv", mode="wb") as fd: DataFrame(data).to_csv(TextIOWrapper(fd), encoding="latin", index=False)  Which runs, but does not work because it also discards the encoding. On top of that, TextIOWrapper closes fd if we don’t call TextIOWrapper.detach before the wrapper is freed. Which brings us back to square one. The best solution to this bug (or documentation issue) would be to create a pull request which implements support for binary file objects. Sadly, updating pandas is just not an viable option for me right now. Therefore I had to implement the following hackish solution which monkey patches pandas.DataFrame.to_csv so that the function supports binary file objects. from contextlib import contextmanager from threading import Semaphore MONKEY_PATCH_DATAFRAME_TO_CSV = Semaphore() @contextmanager def monkey_patch__DataFrame_to_csv(): """Monkey patch pandas.DataFrame.to_csv to make the function work with binary file objects. This is here because to work around the following issues: - https://github.com/pandas-dev/pandas/issues/9712 - https://github.com/pandas-dev/pandas/issues/19827 - https://github.com/pandas-dev/pandas/issues/13068 - https://github.com/pandas-dev/pandas/issues/23854 """ import pandas as pd _DataFrame_to_csv_orig = pd.DataFrame.to_csv def _DataFrame_to_csv(self, path_or_buf, *args, **kwargs): from io import RawIOBase, BufferedIOBase, StringIO # Test if binary: https://stackoverflow.com/a/44584871 if isinstance(path_or_buf, (RawIOBase, BufferedIOBase)): # Set line terminator of StringIO objec to DataFrame.to_csv's # default for line_termnator if int(pd.__version__.split(".")[1]) < 24: # the default was changed in pandas 0.24 version default_line_termnator = "\n" else: from os import linesep default_line_termnator = linesep # Note: Other than to_csv, StringIO will reject uncommon line terminators # by throwing an exception. But I think that's a good thing. sio = StringIO( newline=kwargs.get("line_terminator", default_line_termnator) ) ret = _DataFrame_to_csv_orig( self, sio, *args, **{ **kwargs, **{ # enforce utf-8, this is currently ignored because of: # https://github.com/pandas-dev/pandas/issues/13068 # but if that issue ever gets fixed we prevent # double-encoding with this. "encoding": "utf-8", # enforce mode, this is currently ignored because of: # https://github.com/pandas-dev/pandas/issues/19827 # but if that issue ever gets fixed this patch # should still work. "mode": "w", # always use Unix-style line_terminators. The conversion # line_teminator will happen on StringIO.write "line_terminator": "\n", }, } ) path_or_buf.write( sio.getvalue().encode( # encode to the specified encoding or fall back # to pandas documented default kwargs.get("encoding", "utf-8") ) ) return ret return _DataFrame_to_csv_orig(self, path_or_buf, *args, **kwargs) # apply monkey patch pd.DataFrame.to_csv = _DataFrame_to_csv # Since we are patching in global scope, we have to # ensure here that only one thread runs at the time. # Otherwise monkey patching and reverting the patch # can go really wrong... with MONKEY_PATCH_DATAFRAME_TO_CSV: try: yield _DataFrame_to_csv finally: # restore original to_csv pd.DataFrame.to_csv = _DataFrame_to_csv_orig  If we now use this monkey patch, we can finally generate the files with monkey_patch__DataFrame_to_csv(): with open("cities-utf-8.csv", mode="wb") as fd: DataFrame(data).to_csv(fd, index=False) with open("cities-latin.csv", mode="wb") as fd: DataFrame(data).to_csv(fd, encoding="latin", index=False)  … and get the expected content: $ file cities-*.csv
cities-latin.csv: ISO-8859 text
cities-utf-8.csv: UTF-8 Unicode text
$hexdump -C cities-latin.csv 00000000 30 0a 42 65 72 6e 0a 47 65 6e e8 76 65 0a 5a fc |0.Bern.Gen.ve.Z.| 00000010 72 69 63 68 0a |rich.| 00000015$ hexdump -C cities-utf-8.csv
00000000  30 0a 42 65 72 6e 0a 47  65 6e c3 a8 76 65 0a 5a  |0.Bern.Gen..ve.Z|
00000010  c3 bc 72 69 63 68 0a                              |..rich.|
00000017